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FAQs
:: INSTRUMENTS
ELECTRODES
How do I use Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPEs)?
It is very easy. With the aid of a micropipette just place a drop of 40-50 µL, covering the three electrodes (counter, reference and working). You can also immerse the electrode into solution. Just make sure that the 3 electrode system is in contact with your solution.
DCS - DropSens CELL - DropSens
What working electrode materials does DropSens offer?
Dropsens offers a wide range of working electrode materials such as Carbon, Gold, Platinum, Silver, Carbon modified with metal nanoparticles (gold or silver nanoparticles), nanocarbon materials (CNTs, CNFs, MC, OMC, GPH, …), nanohybrids materials (CNT-GNP, CNF-GNP, GPH-GNP ), Streptavidin and Extravidin modified carbon electrodes, Copper, Bismuth, Titanium, Antimony, Chromium, Nickel, Tin, Aluminium, Molybdenum, Lead, Tantalum, Tungsten, Steel and Carbon Steel, Palladium as well as electrodes with electrochemical mediators like Cobalt-phtalocyanine, Prussian Blue, Meldola's Blue and Ferrocyanide. Please check all our references in the electrodes section in our website as it is often updated with new releases. Find out more
Which electrode model is recommended for my application?
Take a look at the publications section of our website (http://www.dropsens.com/en/publications.html) where you can find many interesting papers published by international researchers related to the use and applications of different DropSens products.

Feel free to contact us anytime. We would be pleased provide you with related advice. Still, you have the complete knowledge in your specific research so bear in mind that trying the SPEs would be the best way to find out which reference suits you better.
Should I pretreat the electrodes?

Electrodes are ready to be used and no general pretreatment protocol is established. With screen-printed electrodes you avoid tedious polishing steps of conventional solid electrodes before performing a measurement.

Still, some researchers apply electrochemical pretreatments for specific applications. For example, the typical treatment of gold electrodes is preforming successive cycles in sulphuric acid (0.1M) between 0 and 1.6V at s.r. 100mV/s.

You can check in DropSens publications section (http://www.dropsens.com/en/publications.html) what other users of these references usually do.

What range of pH solutions can be used with screen-printed electrodes?
SPEs can be used in acid, neutral and basic media as any other conventional solid electrode.
What electrode substrates do you work with?
Most of catalogue electrodes are manufactured over alumina substrate. Plastic substrate is used in PEDOT, ITO, transparent gold and some IDEs electrodes. Glass is used for most of our IDEs electrodes.

Manufacturing in other materials can be evaluated under request as a customized product.
Could you manufacture electrodes with my own design?
Yes, we have the capability of customizing electrodes under your requirements. In order to confirm if we can fulfill your needs we need a rough sketch of your design including all dimensions and materials.
Which are the differences between gold electrodes AT and BT?

The difference between AT and BT electrodes is that they are made with different kinds of gold screen-printing inks. AT ink is cured with a high temperature process (around 900ºC) whereas BT uses a low temperature process (around 150ºC). In the SEM micrographs of both models' surfaces below, it can be noticed that BT models show a rougher surface due to the low temperature treatment.

SEM
We have these two kinds of gold in order to offer a wider electrochemical behaviour to researchers when it comes to gold electrodes. In other words, AT and BT models can show different or similar behaviour depending on the particular experiment i.e. they may have different or similar electrochemical properties depending on the redox system used. There are not defined criteria to describe the properties of each model because these properties depend on the sensor developed, on the electrodes and on the redox molecule tested. For example, ferricyanide shows better electron transfer on AT electrodes than on BT electrodes; also, in a general way we can say that AT models sometimes show better repeatability results, but customers often select BT models to develop biosensors on them. For these reasons, the best way to start working with these electrodes could be testing them and compare their characteristics for the specific application.

In order to find out which reference is more suitable to your concrete application, DropSens has available ref. DRP-AUMIX, including a mix of gold electrodes of high and low temperature.
220AT - DropSens 220BT - DropSens C223AT - DropSens C223BT - DropSens
Single use electrodes: can I use them more than one time?
It depends on your analysis protocol, SPE present high reproducibility, therefore we really recommend to use one electrode per analysis.
Can I sterilize electrodes?
Autoclave during 5 min and 120ºC does not affect SPE performance.
What temperature can I reach with a SPE during the measurement?
Our catalogue SPEs with blue dielectric can stand up to 100ºC. There is always the possibility of manufacturing SPEs without dielectric.

IDE electrodes over glass substrate can stand up to 450ºC whereas ceramic IDEs can stand temperatures up to 800ºC.
Can I work with organic solvents?
SPEs are meant to be used with aqueous solutions however they resist certain organic solvents under concrete conditions. If you plan to use our SPEs with organic solvents contact us and we will inform you on the tests we have carried out.
Which are the main differences between an Ag pseudoreference electrode of a SPE and a standard Ag/AgCl reference electrode?
DropSens' standard screen-printed electrodes use a silver pseudoreference electrode. There is a shift of -131mV when compared to classical Ag/AgCl reference electrode.
Do you have transparent working electrodes?
Yes, we have gold, ITO and PEDOT screen printed electrodes highly recommended for spectroelectrochemical applications in transmission mode.
AUTR10 - DropSens ITO10 - DropSens P10 - DropSens
INSTRUMENTS
Can I use DropSens equipments with conventional electrodes?
Of course! In fact all DropSens equipments include in their set a cable connector from the equipment to conventional electrodes via banana and crocodile clips.
What is included with DropSens equipments?
All instruments are supplied with their related Software, as well as with a convenient carrying case and the necessary accessories to work with conventional electrodes and with Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPEs).
How can I install the instruments?
The setup wizard included in any DropSens software will guide you through the installation process. All our Softwares are Windows based compatible with current operating systems and very intuitive. It is really easy!
Is there a tutorial for working with DropView softwares?
DropView softwares are very user friendly and have very intuitive interfaces; each software includes a manual of use. Still, we will be pleased to help you and arrange a webmeeting to show you the software performance.
Can I update my DropView Sofware? How much does it cost?
Users of DropSens' instruments are entitled to receive software updates free of charge, for an unlimited period of time.
Why is the Bluetooth® useful?
Bluetooth® in our devices is very useful for wireless data transfer and remote control. You can place the instrument inside a glove-box, optical-box… while you control it from your computer.
Which are the differences between DropStat and other potentiostats?
Dropstat is a low-priced, small, portable, single-technique, potentiostat-based custom Electrochemical Reader that is configured attending to customer's needs, thus allowing the researcher to have a unique instrument able to show in a LCD screen the concentration of the analyte for which the electrochemical sensor has been developed. The user can easily change internal calibration by simply inserting programmed calibration cards that can be provided upon request.
Which is the most suitable bipotentiostat/galvanostat for my research?
The range of DropSens bipotentiostat/galvanostast covers the different needs and a broad range of technical characteristics and budgets. For any advice, please contact to info@dropsens.com or sales@dropsens.com, where one of our experts will provide you with further support.
What is the after sales service offered by DropSens?

DropSens ensures continues high-quality technical support to our users, by email, phone or web-meeting sessions, in order to solve any technical enquire about the instrument's operation.

In the event of damage to the instrument after warranty period expiration, DropSens will undertake the repair of the instrument after getting customer's approval on estimated repair and shipping costs. DropSens will guarantee lowest possible repair costs and shortest possible repair times.

Is the µSTAT200 a galvanostat?
µSTAT200 is a portable Bipotentiostat that can be applied for Voltammetric and Amperometric measurements, and it doesn't include galvanostatic techniques. However is a very useful device as the main electroanalytical techniques are available (Cyclic Voltammetry, Linear Sweep Voltammetry, Square Wave Voltammetry, Differential Pulse Voltammetry, Amperometric Detection and Pulsed Amperometric Detection). The software includes is very intuitive and it can be a very suitable instrument for a first approach to electrochemistry.
What is the main difference between µSTAT200, µSTAT300 and µSTAT400?
One of the main differences between µSTAT400 and the other two instruments is that µSTAT400 is also galvanostat. Other differences lie on the potential range or measurable currents. Please, check in the chart below some of the main differences between these instruments.

  µSTAT200 µSTAT300 µSTAT400
Power USB Li-ion Battery/USB/DC
Charge adaptator
Li-ion Battery/USB/DC
Charge adaptator
PC Interface USB Bluetooth/USB Bluetooth/USB
Operating modes Bipotentiostat (same potential applied to each WE).
Potentiostat
Bipotentiostat, Potentiostat Bipotentiostat, Potentiostat, Galvanostat
Number of channels 2 WE sharing AUX and REF 2 WE sharing AUX and REF 2 WE sharing AUX and REF
DC-Potential Range ±2V ±2V ±4V
Current Ranges ±1nA to ±100µA
(6 ranges)
±1nA to ±1mA
(7 ranges)
±1nA to ±10mA
(8 ranges)
Max. Measurable current ±200 µA ±3 mA ±40 mA
Available Techniques Total:6 Total: 10 Total:22
 
· Voltammetric: LSV, CV, SWV, DPV.
· Amperometric: AD, PAD.
· Voltammetric: LSV, CV, SWV, DPV, NPV, NPDV, ACV.
· Amperometric: AD, PAD, MAD.
· Voltammetric: LSV, CV, SWV, DPV, NPV, NPDV, ACV, LPR.
· Amperometric: AD, PAD, MAD, FA, FRA, COUL.
· Potentiometric: LSP, CP, PD, FP, ZCP, PSA (G/F), MPD.
· LSV+AD; CV+AD.
Software DropView 200 DropView 8400 DropView 8400

Please, do not hesitate to contact us. We will help you and recommend the most suitable instrument according to your requirements and needs.
Do you have multichannel instruments?
You have also the option to work with multichannel instruments (µSTAT8000 with up to 8 channels, and µSTAT4000 with up to 4 channels).
May I configure independently each channel?
Every channel works as an independent potentiostat/galvanostat allowing you to perform different measurements (different parameters, different techniques).
May I work with an electrochemical cell containing 4 WE sharing the same RE and CE?
Multichannel instrument like µSTAT4000 allows you to perform analysis where you have 4 working electrodes sharing the same reference and counter electrodes. Instrument µSTAT8000 allows you to work with up to 8 working electrodes sharing reference and counter.
ACCESORIES
What is the volume in the flow cell, DRP-FLWCL?
The volume of the electrochemical cell delimited by an O-ring in the Flow cell is 8µl.

We can also customize cells and flow-cells under your requirements.
Can I use DROPSENS SPEs with my potentiostat?
In order to work with our SPEs and with any potentiostat you can use CAC cable (recommended when working by immersing the electrode into solution) or DSC connector (recommended when working by placing a drop over the electrodes).
What products do you have for magnetic based assays?
We have magnet holders for screen printed electrodes, magnetic flow cell and magnetic nanomaterials such as Ni Nanowires.
Can I use my potentiostat with DROPSENS CONNECTOR96X?
Yes, you can use your potentiostat with our Electrochemical ELISA plate Connector. However, DropSens µStat 8000 instrument is highly recommended, as it will take the most of our complete Electrochemical ELISA system.
Which electrode connectors should I use for the screen-printed electrodes?
You can either work by dropcasting over the SPE or by immersing the SPE into solution:
1. With the aid of a micropipette just place a drop of 40-50 µL, covering the three electrodes (counter, reference and working) like in the attached image. For this purpose, you can use the DSC connector (see image below).
DropSens
2. For working in solution you can use the CELL (picture below) with a volume of 5-8 ml covering the three electrode system in combination with cable CAST (when using a DropSens potentiostat) or cable CAC (when using any other equipment).
DropSens
For this configuration we recommend you to use DropSens work in solution SPEs with the electrochemical cell closer to the end of the strip (i.e C110, C220…etc).
NANOMATERIALS & ELECTROCHEMISTRY REAGENTS
Which carbon nanomaterials can be obtained from DropSens?
Carbon nanotubes, multi- and single-walled, solid and in solution and functionalized with –COOH or NH2 groups.

Graphene Oxide solid and in solution as well as Graphene solution. In solution you have also Carbon Nanofibers and Mesoporous Carbon.
What Nanoparticles and Nanowires do you commercialize?
Au, Pt and Pd nanoparticles; Pd, Pt, Ag, Pt-Au-Ni, Ni and streptatividin coated nickel nanowires are available at DropSens.
Do you commercialize Quantum Dots?
Yes, we commercialize CdSe/ZnS Core Shell Quantum Dots and CdSe Core Quantum Dots with a variety of emission wavelength ranging from 550 nm to 625 nm.

Besides these QDs soluble in organic solvent, now are available also Quantum Dots soluble in aqueous solution and also modified with streptavidin. Check all the available options here.
What is the use of enzymatic substrates?
DropSens provides enzymatic substrates of Alkaline Phosphatase. After their hydrolysis they generate electrochemically active products such as p-aminophenol from p-aminophenyl phosphate, hydroquinone from hydroquinone diphospate and paracetamol from phosphorilated paracetamol.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Is DropSens ISO certified?
DropSens is certified according to the ISO 9001 and ISO 13485 standards.
How can I buy your products?
Just send us an email to info@dropsens.com or sales@dropsens.com and we will provide you with quotation or order confirmation.
How can I contact my local supplier?
We have a very wide Distribution network around the world. Just contact us in info@dropsens.com or sales@dropsens.com and we will put you in contact with your nearest distributor.
Do you have technical support?
DropSens specialist team will provide you with all technical support and information. You can write us to info@dropsens.com or you can call us on +34 985277685.
How do you ship your products?
We ship worldwide normally through courier. Still we like to adapt to our customer's needs so any other shipping method can be considered under request.
How long does it take me to get my products?
Lead time depends to where are you located. We normally ship our catalogue products once a week.
How can I pay for my order?
Bank transfer and Credit Card payment with Visa or MasterCard are available.
Is DropSens ISO certified?
DropSens is certified according to the ISO 9001 and ISO 13485 standards.
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